Lumistrips LED Lighting Blog

UV Fluence (Dose) recommended for 90% or 99% disinfection from Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa and Algae

 When designing, building or installing a UV light, two key questions must be answered first:

"How irradiance does it need to have?"

"What is the required exposure time?"

While there are many studies that show the effectiveness of UV light in disinfection or sterilization, a high variance of the results exists, which presents a challenge to find an answer to these questions. 

We will present our recommendations by analyzing the results of 413 reasearch papers, as found in the compilation "Fluence (UV Dose) Required for up to 99% disinfection from Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa and Algae"  that can be downloaded at the links below:

PDF: Fluence (UV Dose) Required to Achieve Incremental Log Inactivation of Bacteria, Protozoa, Viruses and Algae

The research studies present the fluence required to achieve a log reduction from 1 to 5, for different types of UV sources.

The effectiveness of sterilization or disinfection with UV light depends on the exposuretimewavelength and irradiance.

  • Exposure or fluence (sometimes called dose) is measured in mJ/cm2 (where 1 mJ/cm2 = 10 J/m2)
  • Exposure time is measured in seconds (s), minutes (m) or hours (h)
  • Irradiance is the flux of radiant energy per unit area, in other words how much of the UV radiation power (measured in W = 1000 “miliwatts” mW = 1.000.000,00 “microwatts” μW ) reaches the surface. Irradiance is measured in mW/cmor W/m2 (1 mW/cm2 = 10 W/m2) and is dependent on the radiant power, distance and dispersion of the radiation emitted by the lamp source.

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Disinfection with UV Light can deliver 99% Kill Rate for Bacteria and Viruses (incl COVID-19)

UV light breaks the DNA of viruses and bacteria

Effective and cost efficient disinfection or sterilizing of surfaces, water and objects can have a significant, positive effect on the general health of our society. The impact of pandemics, present such of the COVID-19 (coronavirus), and future can be greatly reduced, as well as a major decrease of illnesses in general, including from drug resistant pathogens or hospital-acquired infections (HAI).

Disinfection or sterilization with ultraviolet (UV) light can be the way to achieve such goals. However, challenges of using UV light still exist and the ways to overcome them are presented in this article.

"UV light annihilates viruses and bacteria by destroying their ability to reproduce. "

Using ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect or sterilize1 has actually been embraced by some hospitals since years, by using large, industrial-grade machines to kill microorganisms (including COVID-19) in hospital rooms or on furniture, objects, clothing or instruments. However, such machines are the perfect showcase of the challenges of using UV light. They are prohibitively expensive for private or business use, as a mobile platform with UV lamps can cost more than 60.000 USD2. Their deep UV radiation is also dangerous for people and must be used only in empty rooms.

UV robot for hospital use

With the current advances in UV LED lighting technology both problems can be overcome.

Smaller versions of UV disinfection lamps can be built at affordable cost, so they are accessible to consumers and companies looking to clean pretty much everything, from office spaces, elevators and living rooms, to phones, computers and even toilet seats.

Different UV wavelengths with precise control of intensity and radiation pattern can make disinfection safe to be used when people are present.

The most promising practical application of the above is the continuous disinfection with low intensity UVA LEDs .

"Continuous disinfection: UVA radiation functioning for 8 hours, daily. Safe for people*. Will kill up to 99% of viruses and bacteria**. "

*Irradiance limited to 10W/m2 at 2m from the floor.

**According to two independent studies quoted in this article.

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High performance Horticulture lighting with LinearZ LED Modules

LinearZ LED Modules for horticultureGrowing plants in closed and fully controlled environments, under artificial lighting is method of growing popularity, with increasing competition to have results at a low cost and as fast as possible. Thus the lighting system plays a crucial role.

Below you will find a quick guide how to build the most efficient lighting system.

1) Research, research

Discover what spectrum and intensity of light your plants need.

You can start by reading our detailed article about horticulture lighting here

2) Choose the right PPFD and light color for your plants

By using the latest technology, special or full spectrum white light LEDs have become the most efficient and cost effective light sources for plant growth. 

With our Nichia 757 Rsp0a LEDs with white light for special spectrum for plant growth or full spectrum Nichia Optisolis CRI98 LEDs your plants will grow up to 50% more than conventional light, including standard white LEDs, a combination of red and blue LEDs or a fluorescent tube, for lower energy consumption.

With 3000K white color temperature you will have more pleasant looking plants while with 5000K you obtain faster growth.

Nichia LED for Horticulture

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Plant growth (Horticulture) lighting guide with LEDs

Light for plant growth

Industrial scale indoor agriculture under artificial lighting in closed and fully controlled environments could become the main factor that keeps at bay famine and related conflicts. With increasing population, diminishing area of agricultural land, pollution, global warming and migration to grow plants in a reliable, predictable and efficient way will become even more important in the future. For this reason it is important to understand and corectly apply the concepts of lighting for plant growth and development.

Concepts related to Horticulture lighting

A key factor in the success of indoor plant growth is the efficiency of the lighting system compared with sunlight, in the process of plant growth.

Plants grow via a process called Photosynthesis that converts electromagnetic radiation (light) into the chemical energy needed for growth and development. The other ingredients required are carbon dioxide (CO2), nutrients and water. 

Photosynthesis and PAR radiation

The electromagnetic radiation required for Photosynthesis is defined as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and 400 to 700 nanometers has spectral range. Only radiation in this interval can be used by photosynthetic organisms in the process of photosynthesis, to fix the carbon in CO2 into carbohydrates.

Electromagnetic radiation called visible light or simply light for a typical human eye has a spectral range from about 380 to 740 nanometers.

A common unit of measurement for Photosynthetically active radiation PAR is the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF in short), measured in units of moles per second. For many practical applications this unit is extended to PPFD, units of moles per second per square meter.

The theory behind PPF is that every absorbed photon, regardless of its wavelength and energy, has an equal contribution to the photosynthetic process. As in accordance with the Stark-Einstein law, every photon (or quantum) that is absorbed will excite one electron, regardless of the photon’s energy, between 400 nm and 700 nm. 

However, only some of photons are absorbed by a plant leaf, as determined by its optical properties and the concentration of plant pigments. The pigments are Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B, and Carotenoids (a/-Carotene, Lycopene, Xanthophyll).

The Chlorophylls A and B give plant leaves the characteristic green color because they reflect most of the radiation between 500 and 600 nanometres.  Plants Where more Carotenoids than Chlorophylls are present plant leaves reflect wavelengths beyond 540nm and have yellow, orange, and red colors. This includes autumn leaves when Chlorophylls have dried away. 

The graph below shows the typical absorptance spectra for Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B and Chlorophyll (beta-carotene). Each are explained briefly afterwards:


 Typical absorptance spectra for Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B and Chlorophyll (beta-carotene).

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Recommended color rendering index CRI base on your project

The CRI, colour rendering index, is a one-number quantification that indicates the performance of an artificial light source in terms of colour rendering compared to a reference standard light source modelled on daylight. The highest number is 100, for daylight and incandescent/halogen lamps, while gas discharge lamps range from 17 to 96, with even a negative value for low sodium pressure (the yellow type used in street lamps).

Due to this variation in the ability to reproduce colour with the white light emitted by the many types of gas lamps on the market, CRI index was introduced in 1974 by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). 

Today, with more than 40 years of use, the CRI index is firmly rooted in the lighting industry and among professionals. However, it has not been very well understood by the public. The reason was that such knowledge was not really useful as most lamps were built for specific applications that required a minimum CRI value, so one could not go wrong when choosing a lamp.

For example, for office or other linear lighting, the lamps of choice where Tri-Phospor linear fluorescent tubes on the market since the 1970s, all with a CRI value above 80. For domestic lighting, there was a mix between incandescent and halogen lamps, both with CRI100, for retail and other high intensity spot lighting, metal halide lamps with CRI min 85. Street lighting was reserved for high intensity and very efficient sodium vapour lamps, which had a poor CRI but this was considered not important.

From the year 2000 this changed with LED technology, the first light source that can be used for any application while having a broad performance and quality level, including the ability to reproduce colours accurately. It is therefore essential that you choose LEDs with the right CRI level for your application.

CRI comparison

The picture above shows how colors can look different based on the CRI of the light source that illuminates them. A vibrant red under sunlight or a high CRI light can look dull or even orange under a low CRI light.

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Tips on how to build the best lines of light or linear light fixtures with LED strips

Lines of light are a new trend in lighting design and are usually made with an LED strip inside an aluminum profile that has a translucent white cover. The attraction of using such a linear light fixture is that it can be personalized. You can choose as you desire the pattern, place of installation, length (up to many meters), geometric shape or a combination of these elements.  

Line of Light with LED strip inside a profileBecause of their way of construction lines of light are a type of direct lighting. Compared with coves that are indirect lighting, lines of light are more energy efficient but can have greatly increased glare. For this reason lines of light should be designed with care and almost always be dimmable. 

Let's see how we can achieve the best results with lines of light.

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Tips on how to have the best illuminated stretch ceiling with LED modules

The illuminated ceiling or stretch ceiling is very interesting trend in interior lighting. By using a translucent material many square meters in size with a backlighting system, a diffuse, even and relaxing illumination of interiors can be created. The main advantage of this type of lighting is the absence of glare, as the light sources are distributed over a large area and hidden behind the material.

The backlight source is usually low or medium brightness LEDs (5 to 50 lumens) mounted on strips or modules. Since the illuminated surface has a large area, such low power illumination is the best choice.

Illuminated stretch ceiling with LEDs, inside an office

Illuminated stretch ceilings can have personalized shapes and even feature translucent images. They can therefore influence the overall design of a room much more than other lighting fixtures. From a lighting design perspective, uniform light should be supplemented by spotlights or lamps that can draw attention to specific areas or objects.

The proper design and installation of a luminous ceiling has a number of unique challenges that we will address in this article.

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Cove lighting with LED strips: HOW TO

A Cove light is a line of light can obtained via a LED strip hidden from view inside a cove in the wall or ceiling that illuminates an adjacent surface. Light is reflected from this surface into the space that has to be illuminated. That is why lines of light are commonly known as cove or indirect lighting.

Cove lighting is beneficial trend to design lighting, with focus on human nature and how natural light behaves. It is today widely adopted, with lines of light as a principal way to illuminate interiors.

The allure is the similarity with natural light. With the proper light source used, we could imagine that the cove is actually a hidden window to the outside from where sunlight flows in.

Lets explore how we can have the best results with cove lighting

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What does IP wateproof rating means and what value are recommended IP levels for the bathroom

WHAT DOES IP PROTECTION MEAN?

The IP protection index is an essential feature of most electrical equipments and indicates the degree of protection of the device against external factors such as solid objects or liquids. This protection is expressed by the word "IP", followed by 2 numbers that indicate

  • The first digit describes the degree of protection against solid objects, dust, solid particles and bodies
  • The second digit describes the degree of protection against liquids

The IP rating is relevant when the environmental conditions are standard; in special cases and hazardous environments, special protection is required.


Although there are numerous combinations of IP ratings for LED strips, the most common are IP67, IP65, IP44, IP20. In general, all LED strips have IP20 protection,  IP44 can be found for LED strips within an aluminium profile with closed end caps and IP65 or more is normally used for waterproof LED strips.

The first digit – protection from foreign bodies

  • 0 – no protection from foreign bodies;
  • 1 – protected against solid objects greater than 50mm(e.g. accidental touch by hands);
  • 2 – protected against solid objects up to 12mm(e.g. fingers);
  • 3 – protected against solid objects greater than 2.5mm(e.g. tools and wires);
  • 4 – protected against solid objects greater than 1mm(e.g. small tools and wires);
  • 5 – protected against dust, limited ingress(e.g. no harmful deposit);
  • 6 – totally protected against dust.

The second digit – protection from liquids

  • 0 – no protection from liquids;
  • 1 – protection against vertically falling drops of water(e.g. condensation);
  • 2 – protection against direct sprays of water up to 15 degrees from vertical;
  • 3 – protection against direct sprays of water up to 60 degrees from vertical;
  • 4 – protection against water sprayed from all directions – limited ingress permitted;
  • 5 – protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions – limited ingress permitted;
  • 6 – protected against high pressure jets of water (use on ship deck) – limited ingress permitted;
  • 7 – protected against the effects of immersion between 15cm and 1m;
  • 8 – protected against long periods of immersion under pressure.

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Seoul SunLike LEDs improve sleep patterns ease eye strain, two research studies find

Seoul SunLike LEDs ease eye strain and improve sleep patterns, two research studies suggest

The positive health effects of the full spectrum SunLike LEDs from Seoul Semiconductor have been confirmed in two independent studies, by universities from Switzerland and South Korea.

The new SunLike LED technology brings a major improvement to the spectral power distribution (SPD) of LED lights, which now mimic the SPD of the sun within the bounds of the human visual range. The SunLike LEDs use a three-phosphor mix and a violet emitter to achieve the SPD. Seoul has said that the LEDs can be used in a variety of applications including in human-centric lighting or lighting for health and well-being where tunable lighting can be applied to improve human well-being.

SunLike LED Desgin 

A study published by the University of Basel in Switzerland titled “Effect of daylight LED on visual comfort, melatonin, mood, waking performance, and sleep” found that volunteers had better visual comfort, more alertness, and happier moods associated with exposure to SunLike LEDs compared to other LEDs. 

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